We bring the most interesting information about masculinity here for the first time

[The survey findings presented as is, without author’s opinion. Readers are free to comment, analyze]

International Centre for Research on Women (ICRAW) has done a study on men’s role in gender equality in 2011.

The activities of this survey included –

  1. Multi-country policy research and analysis on Public policies to promote gender equality.
  2. A quantitative household survey conducted in seven countries including India
  3. “Men who Care” study of on-depth qualitative life history interviews of men

Countries covered – Brazil, Chile, Croatia, India, Mexico, Rwanda and South Africa

Main aim of this study was –

  1. To provide policymakers with evidence based, practical strategies to engage men in gender equality to include men in the areas of –
  • Sexual and reproductive health
  • Reducing gender based violence
  • Fatherhood
  • Maternal and child health
  • Men’s health needs

Key findings

1. Work Related Stress – 34-88 % men reported stress due to low income or having no work. They are more likely to report – Depression, Suicide Ideas, Previous Arrests and Violence against intimate partners –

Work Related Stress

2. Gender Attitude – Most Indian men showed Gender Inequitable Attitude.

GEM Study

3. Homophobic attitude – 92% Indians said they will be ashamed to have a gay son

Men's attitude towards homosexuality

4. Relationship Dynamics and Domestic Duties – 16% Indian men said they play equal or greater role in domestic duties whereas in other countries it was around 50%.

Sharing personal problems

Participation in domestic duties

Men's participation in Domestic duties

Link between father and son's domestic duties

Satisfaction with division of house work

5. Sexual Satisfaction – Men generally showed more sexual satisfaction than women. Women who said that their partners do more domestic work were found to be more sexually satisfied. 98% Indian men said they were satisfied with their stable partners.

Sexual Satisfaction - men n women

Reporting sexual experience in last month

Women speaking with partner about sexual satisfaction

6. Parenting and involvement in childbirth – Most men with children had never been to a delivery room during their child’s birth. Unemployed men are more likely to be involved in daily caregiving of the children.

Men's accompaniment during prenatal visits

Pre-natal leave of men

Daily Care by men

Employment status and child care

7. Health Practices and Vulnerabilities – Younger men and men with more inequitable gender attitude found to regularly abuse alcohol.

Alcohol Abuse

Prostate Exam

HIV Test

8. Abortion

Abortion decision making

Induced Abortion

9. Self-Esteem – Men generally reported high level of self-esteem with the exception of Croatia and India. Men also have high level of suicide ideation and depression.

Negative Statement of Well being

Employment status and child care

  • 2 % men in India reported suicidal thoughts in previous one month
  • 4% men said they frequently have stress about less income

..and now we know the reason of high suicide rate among Indian men –

Seeking help when depressed

10. Violence and Criminal Practices – Intimate Partner Violence perpetrated by men was found ranging between 25 to 40 percent. Violence by women on men NOT captured.

  •  This data is not presented here as the survey was done in a biased manner only to capture one sided violence.

11. Transactional Sex – Between 16 – 56 percent men reported transactional sex. Men with lower education, less gender-equitable attitude and those unhappy with current partner indulge in this.

  • 27% men admitted to going to a sex worker for paid sex

Attitude towards female sex worker

Attitude towards male sex worker

12. Knowledge and attitude towards policies and laws related to gender equality – Men in all countries with exception to India supported gender equality saying – ‘Men do not lose out when women’s rights are promoted’. Men reported highest exposure to gender based violence campaigns and in all countries they have shown negative attitude towards the laws related to gender based violence.

Only India and Mexico data presented here –

Reaction to quota

Men's exposure to messages about violence against women

Exposure to VAWA

Men's attitude about VAWA Law

Conclusions (In the report)

  1. Work Related Stress is a major factor and common occurrence in men’s lives
  2. Gender attitude matters
  3. Men are generally positive about gender equality, exception India
  4. Educated men are most likely to live gender equality in their daily lives
  5. Childhood experiences matter, affirming the need to engage men in gender equitable practices in the lives of children
  6. Men have experienced and used violence in multiple ways
  7. Address the structural factors of gender equality and being empathetic towards factors like high levels of childhood experiences of violence, high work related stress, unspoken depression and suicidal thoughts

***

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2 comments

  1. […] In 2014, UN Women has started a campaign called “HeForShe” by Emma Watson giving a speech in UN about how important it is for men to come forward and talk about women’s rights. If we think it is Emma who came up with this brilliant idea you will be wrong. Because this was taken up by a UN resolution long back in 90s. Earlier their were many ways the UN tried to have men’s role defined in women empowerment. In 2011, in a survey on masculinity in India, UN agencies showed how Indian menly by ICRAW […]

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