[The survey findings presented as is, without author’s opinion. Readers are free to comment, analyze]
International Centre for Research on Women (ICRAW) has done a study on men’s role in gender equality in 2011.
The activities of this survey included –
- Multi-country policy research and analysis on Public policies to promote gender equality.
- A quantitative household survey conducted in seven countries including India
- “Men who Care” study of in-depth qualitative life history interviews of men
Countries covered – Brazil, Chile, Croatia, India, Mexico, Rwanda and South Africa
The main aim of this study was –
- To provide policymakers with evidence-based, practical strategies to engage men in gender equality to include men in the areas of –
- Sexual and reproductive health
- Reducing gender-based violence
- Maternal and child health
- Men’s health needs
1. Work Related Stress – 34-88 % men reported stress due to low income or having no work. They are more likely to report – Depression, Suicide Ideas, Previous Arrests, and Violence against intimate partners –
2. Gender Attitude – Most Indian men showed Gender Inequitable Attitude.
3. Homophobic attitude – 92% Indians said they will be ashamed to have a gay son
4. Relationship Dynamics and Domestic Duties – 16% Indian men said they play equal or greater role in domestic duties whereas in other countries it was around 50%.
5. Sexual Satisfaction – Men generally showed more sexual satisfaction than women. Women who said that their partners do more domestic work were found to be more sexually satisfied. 98% Indian men said they were satisfied with their stable partners.
6. Parenting and involvement in childbirth – Most men with children had never been to a delivery room during their child’s birth. Unemployed men are more likely to be involved in daily caregiving of the children.
7. Health Practices and Vulnerabilities – Younger men and men with more inequitable gender attitude found to regularly abuse alcohol.
9. Self-Esteem – Men generally reported a high level of self-esteem with the exception of Croatia and India. Men also have a high level of suicide ideation and depression.
- 2 % men in India reported suicidal thoughts in previous one month
- 4% men said they frequently have stress about less income
..and now we know the reason for high suicide rate among Indian men –
10. Violence and Criminal Practices – Intimate Partner Violence perpetrated by men was found ranging between 25 to 40 percent. Violence by women on men NOT captured.
- This data is not presented here as the survey was done in a biased manner only to capture one-sided violence.
11. Transactional Sex – Between 16 – 56 percent men reported transactional sex. Men with lower education, less gender-equitable attitude and those unhappy with current partner indulge in this.
- 27% men admitted to going to a sex worker for paid sex
12. Knowledge and attitude towards policies and laws related to gender equality – Men in all countries with exception to India supported gender equality saying – ‘Men do not lose out when women’s rights are promoted’. Men reported the highest exposure to gender-based violence campaigns and in all countries, they have shown a negative attitude towards the laws related to gender-based violence.
Only India and Mexico data presented here –
Conclusions (In the report)
- Work Related Stress is a major factor and common occurrence in men’s lives
- Gender attitude matters
- Men are generally positive about gender equality, exception India
- Educated men are most likely to live gender equality in their daily lives
- Childhood experiences matter, affirming the need to engage men in gender equitable practices in the lives of children
- Men have experienced and used violence in multiple ways
- Address the structural factors of gender equality and being empathetic towards factors like high levels of childhood experiences of violence, high work-related stress, unspoken depression and suicidal thoughts